Current state of research on aPDT

If you want to learn more about the current reseaarch state of aPDT and it´s potential to treat tropical diseases, please check our literature collection.




Methylene Blue, methylated derivatives, crystal violet, Pc4


M.S. Baptista/ M. Wainwright (2011): Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) for the  treatment of malaria, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. In:

Wainwright MAmaral L. (2005): The phenothiazinium chromophore and the evolution of antimalarial drugs. In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jun;10(6):501-11.

Schirmer et al (2003): Methylene blue as an antimalarial agent. In: Redox Rep. 2003;8(5):272-5.

Danielle LeBlanc, Robert Story, and Eitan Gross (Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA): Laser-induced inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum (

Todd G. Smith, and Kevin C. Kain (Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, and McLaughlin-Rotman Center for Global Health, McLaughlin Center for Molecular Medicine,University of Toronto, and Tropical Disease Unit, University Health Network-Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (

S. Lustigman, E. Ben-Hur†: Photosensitized inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum in human red cells by phthalocyanines

Jérôme DormoiAurélie PascualSébastien BriolantRémy AmalvictSerge CharrasEric BaretEmilie Huyghues des EtagesMichel Feraud, and Bruno Pradines: Proveblue (Methylene Blue) as an Antimalarial Agent: In Vitro Synergy with Dihydroartemisinin and Atorvastatin

Philippe Grellier1, René Santus2, Elisabeth Mouray1, Vered Agmon3, Jean-Claude Mazière2, Daniel Rigomier4, Arie Dagan3, Shimon Gatt3, Joseph Schrével: Photosensitized Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum- and Babesia divergens-Infected Erythrocytes in Whole Blood by Lipophilic Pheophorbide Derivatives

Zhao XJLustigman SLi YSKenney MEBen-Hur E.: Structure-activity and mechanism studies on silicon phthalocyanines with Plasmodium falciparum in the dark and under red light.



benzo[a]phenothiazinium chloride, benzo[a]phenoselenazinium chloride


O’Riordan KAkilov OEChang SKFoley JWHasan T.: Real-time fluorescence monitoring of phenothiazinium photosensitizers and their anti-mycobacterial photodynamic activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG in in vitro and in vivo models of localized infection.

O’Riordan KSharlin DSGross JChang SErrabelli DAkilov OEKosaka SNauGJHasan T.: Photoinactivation of Mycobacteria in vitro and in a new murine model   of localized Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced granulomatous infection.

Saatci AOSelver OBYaman AArikan GSayiner AAkkoclu A.: Photodynamic therapy as an adjunct to systemic treatment in a case with unilateral presumed vascularized choroidal tuberculous granuloma.

Elke Feese and Reza A. Ghiladi*: Highly efficient in vitro photodynamic inactivation of Mycobacterium smegmatis

Nackmoon Sunga et al.: Inactivation of multidrug resistant (MDR)- and extensively drug resistant (XDR)-Mycobacterium tuberculosis by photodynamic therapy



Hypericin, Pc 4, HMME, Methylene Blue, Rose Bengal


Ben-Hur EOetjen JHorowitz B.: Silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and red light   causes apoptosis in HIV-infected cells.

Yingxin Li, Huijuan Yin, Yongtang Zheng (2011): Cleaning blood of human immunodeficiency virus. SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201105.003320.

Huijuan Yin,: ANTI-HIV-1 Activities of Photodynamic Therapy Using Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether.

B. Bhagwandin1,2, N. Loebel3, S. Baskaran3, R. Andersen3: Use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for prevention of HIV transmission from      mother to child: a novel approach

Hudson et al. (1993): The importance of light in the anti-HIV effect of hypericin. In: Antiviral Res. 1993 Feb;20(2):173-8.

Degar et. al (1992): Inactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus by hypericin: evidence for photochemical alterations of p24 and a block in uncoating. In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992 Nov;8(11):1929-36.

Lenard JRabson AVanderoef R.: Photodynamic inactivation of infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus and other enveloped viruses using hypericin and rose bengal: inhibition of fusion and syncytia formation.

Lavie GMazur YLavie DPrince AMPascual DLiebes LLevin BMeruelo D.: Hypericin as an inactivator of infectious viruses in blood components.

North et al. (1993): New trends in photobiology: Photosensitizers as virucidal agents. In: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 99–108 Protein in St. John’s Wort Found to Suppress HIV-1 Gene Expression



Toluidune blue O, Trovafloxacin

Literature: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) Study Shows Reduction of Biofilms Using Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Laser light combined with a photosensitizer may eliminate methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. A comparison of the photosensitizing potential of trovafloxacin with that of other quinolones in healthy subjects

Human Papilloma Virus


Hexaminolevulinate, Methylaminolevulinate


Soergel PDahl GFOnsrud MHillemanns P.: Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1-3 and human papilloma virus (HMV) infection with methylaminolevulinate and hexaminolevulinate–a double-blind, dose-finding study.



Baptista MSWainwright M.: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) for the treatment of malaria, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis.



Porphyrins, Methylen Blue


Michael J. Casteel et al.: Photoinactivation of Hepatitis A Virus by Synthetic Porphyrins

Eike Steinmann, Ute Gravemann, Martina Friesland,  Juliane Doerrbecker, Thomas H. Müller, Thomas Pietschmann, Axel Seltsam: Two pathogen reduction technologies—methylene blue plus light and shortwave ultraviolet light—effectively inactivate hepatitis C virus in blood products.